Monsoon Subeditor Mitiana Arbon reflects on the controversies of Disney’s upcoming film Moana and its French language changes.

The release of the trailer for Disney’s upcoming film Moana has brought with it a mixture of polarising opinions about representation amongst Polynesian communities. Recent debates on the representation of the demi-god Maui have gained particular traction through the sharing of a meme by Samoan footballer Eliota Fuimaono Sapolu on Facebook, and a similarly scathing critique by New Zealand Labour MP Jennifer Teresia Salesa, highlighting the negetaive stereotyping of Polynesians in the media.

Despite the vibrancy of discussions around the characters and Polynesian culture that can be so far gleaned from the film, the anglo-centric media has yet to engage with other language debates. Similar discussions on cultural representation and inclusion have been raised amongst French Pacific Islander communities in French Polynesia, Wallis and Futuna and New Caledonia, and also their large cultural diaspora in France.

Of particular note for French speaking Pacific Islanders is the total lack of Polynesian in Disney France’s Moana. While we have only heard Maui so far in the trailer, the French version is devoid of a Pacific Islander tone, with the current voicing in French thought to be that of Frantz Confiac. A French dubber of African heritage, Frantz Confiac is well known for his voicing of pre-dominantly African-American actors such as Terry Crews, Orlando Jones, Courtney Vance, Tyler Perry and Tracey Morgan.

As the French tend to dub, rather than use subtitles, over the original language, it is paramount that Disney should hold the same level of care across all its language versions, and not just solely pandering to the primarily anglo-orientated audience. Unlike Disney’s praised attempt to include English speaking Pacific Islanders through an open casting call for Moana, that saw the Hawaiian Auli’i Cavalho and the Samoan Dwayne Johnson cast as Moana and Maui, no such effort has been taken up by Disney France.

Following the release of the official Moana trailer last month, many French Pacific Islanders took to social media to express their anger at the lack of inclusion by Disney France, arguing that a French Polynesian should voice Maui and Moana in the same way as the English version does. This even included the launch of a petition on change.org asking for Disney to give the role of Maui to a Polynesian. The petition argues that there is no excuse for not casting a Polynesian as Maui and also surely that of Moana as well (whose voice is yet to be heard).

Some French Polynesians, such as Yves Edouard Malakai and the Tahitian born singer, music producer and model Ken Carlter, have even gone as far as producing versions of the trailer dubbed by themselves to show how a French Polynesian Maui could sound (see below) with a French Polynesian voicing and accent.

However this is not the only significant change to the Moana film, with Disney France actually chaging the title of the film from Moana to Vaiana: La Légende du Bout du Monde (Vaiana: The Legend from the End of the Earth). At one point it was even going to be called La Princesse du Bout du Monde (The Princess from the End of the Earth).

While the name change isn’t necessarily a bad thing, it does create a little linguistic confusion. The name Vaiana itself can be understood in Tahitian as mean vai, or ‘water’ and ana, ‘cave’. This however clashes when you consider that her last name Waialiki contains the Hawaiian/Maori cognate word wai also meaning water.

Disney’s alteration of  film and character names is not an uncommon occurrence for French versions of English films. With past movie name changes including the likes of Finding Nemo that became Le Monde de Nemo (The World of Nemo) despite the Quebec French language version remainining Trouver Nemo (Finding Nemo). However the swap from Moana to Vaiana was claimed to be due to possible trademark issues that the name posed in Europe. With Disney Spain tweeting that “The ‘Moana’ mark is registered in Spain and in some European countries. So the film ‘Moana’, will be Vaiana.”

Other commentators have taken a more critical position, suggesting that the change to Vaiana may actually be an attempt to distance and prevent confusion of the character with the already famous Italian porn star, actress, writer and cofounder of the Love Party of Italy, Moana Pozzi, which has been cited as the reason for the films rebranding as ‘Oceania’ in Italian.

Considering that France has a strong Pacific presence and cultural ties in the region – through its overseas collectivities of French Polynesia, Wallis & Futuna and New Caledonia – it seems strange that Disney would not follow the same stringent inclusive attitude that it has taken for the English version; that there are a high number of Tahitians, Marquesans, Wallisian and Futunan throughout France, there is really no excuse. While we are yet to hear the voice of further characters, one can only hope that they will change Maui, or at least try to include the voice of French Pacific Islanders in other roles.

vaiana

Posted by Mitiana Arbon

Mitiana Arbon is a final year student at the Australian National University studying a Bachelor of Pacific Studies/Bachelor of Arts

39 Comments

  1. […] Big Hero 6 (2014), Zootopia (2015), and the latest big screen adventure: Moana, known in France as Vaiana […]

  2. Moana in maori means oceam when you see the trailer could observe the girl and the water from the oceam become one playing…I really don’t fine a real excusse to change the name to vaiana,…about the port woman with similar name in france, no even me. to just today know that this person exist.
    Moama is beautiful name for a princess from the pacific,…

  3. Yep, sometimes they change the names. Often it’s warranted. Can i just speak on behalf of all french people that “trouver nemo” sounds freaking dumb, often it sounds a lot better to take some creative license (un reve bleu vs un nouveau monde) and the quebec translators have slight identity issues (why do they need their own dub, all other french speaking countries that i know of just use the french? for goodness sakes, they call Happy Meals “Joyeux Festin”. Even in Paris their not that pedantic. They make STOP signs “arretez” signs.) But this one seems slightly unwarranted. However, the extension of the title is undoubtedly a marketing advantage- if they brand it as being a princess story, albeit slightly alternative, then it becomes an option for class excursions up until year 4, a.k.a. double the tickets sold. Which may seem slightly cheap. However, american audiences + disney are quick to criticise this as the suppression of diversity, which is a little hypocritical since they have never had to face these problems themselves in dubbing etc.

    1. it’s because of the release zone. aren’t you used to it in 2016 yet ?? after almost 15 years of broadband internet ADSL ? they are region 1. we are region 2. means that movies are released in québec soon after the states. sometimes dvds and blurays are out weeks before the actual movie even reach french THEATERS ! hence why they must have a french language version ready.

    2. Quebec actually translates the movies in French before France, so it’s not Quebec that wants to have a different version, it’s FRANCE who decides to have their own french version. Films release in Quebec before France. Also, it’s known that most countries in the Francophonie (except France) prefer the Quebec dubs, because they use a more international french and have more accurate translations. You can’t take creative license over everything, because then you create something different. In Quebec, there is a law that requires to translate english words, that’s why, and its perfectly fine. You just sound like a butthurt French.

    3. Wow, if the majority of people in France were like you, I’d consider that country to be an American colony already. What’s wrong with wanting things in our own language? The mentality here in Quebec is “if you can’t bother translating it properly, we can’t bother buying it”. It’s a question of respect. Also, “Le monde de Nemo” makes no sense at all considering the story of the movie, Trouver Nemo sounds much better and makes more sense. As for that Aladdin song… I should point out that the french canadian version of Aladdin is the only non-english version that was considered “as good as the original” by the original director.

  4. Great movie to watch with the family 😉 !

  5. How about the rude using of name of the King of ️Tahiti, Tamatoa as a silly character!!! Not cool! You must change that!!!

  6. Enough of political correctness. Stop it, please. You are not better than anyone else, and just because you are “Polynesian”, it doesn’t mean people should bow down to you.

  7. In the native language of the Alifuru ( Maluku The islands of spices, part of indonesia ) Wai also so means Water. Hawaians and Maori are related to the Alifuru.

  8. I’m not from Italy nor from France or Spain and I’m pretty mad that in my country Latvia, it is not derived from USA original, and is called Vaiana not Moana! We do not have any pornstars or trademarks registered, everyone is pretty confused about this.. Let French, Spanish and Italians deal with their problems themselves, why other countries in EU still have Vaiana?!

  9. CUINER ANNE JUDITH 29/11/2016 at 8:14 pm

    Your report states:

    Moana as well (who’s voice is yet to be heard).

    Sorry but in correct English it should be ‘whose voice is yet to be heard’!!
    Judith CUINIER
    FRANCE

  10. We saw this yesterday in Brussels, in English with French subtitles. The weird thing is that in spite of the fact that we were hearing the original English voices, the character was referred to throughout as Vaiana. Which leads me to think that the original cast recorded several versions of some lines of dialogue changing the name for different countries.

    1. So did I, in Bordeaux ! It seems to me they could have left it untouched, since they’re calling it “Original Version” and changing the name serves no purpose when the movie is in English.

    2. I haven’t seen the movie yet (mainly because most cinemas around here only play the Dutch/French versions. I’d have to go to a Kinepolis to watch it in English) but I have been listening to the soundtrack for quite some time. There’s actually a version of the songs in which Moana is reffered to as Vaiana, but, strangely enough, they did not change the title of the song ‘I am Moana’ to ‘I am Vaiana’. It managed to confuse me quite a bit.

  11. […] En Italia, la película se titula “Oceania” y en Francia “Viana: La princesa del fin del mundo”, y en estos casos desde Disney simplemente se refieren a que en esos dos países la marca “Moana” y…. […]

  12. […] En Italia, la película se titula “Oceania” y en Francia “Viana: La princesa del fin del mundo”, y en estos casos desde Disney simplemente se refieren a que en esos dos países la marca “Moana” y…. […]

  13. […] ? Au vu des efforts faits pour la version américaine et la présence francophone dans les DOM TOM, je m’attendais à plus venant de Disney France […]

  14. “As the French tend to dub, rather THEN use subtitles, over the original language”

    Really? “Then” instead of “than”? Was this even proofread? Lmao, this is embarassing.

  15. The movie will start next week in Austria, also as Vaiana…Don’t ask me why! :((

  16. Ah, it’s called Vaiana in Denmark too.
    I honestly think all of the bs about Maui being “big” is a racist thing, is so stupid..
    First, people want to see different body types, instead of sticks, and as soon as they get them they cry ‘racism!’
    It’s a fact, that it once was a good thing, to have fat on your body, as a higher class (Chiefs and Gods, as an example)
    Like it was a fact that it once was good to be chubby, since that indicated that you had money.

    I think people should grow up.. It’s a movie and they’re portraying Maui as a big man, and that’s okay.
    Moana/Vaiana is a great movie, and definitely one of my favorites by far.
    I’ve been listening to the soundtrack non-stop, ever since the music came out.
    It has a great and strong female lead, and a funny male side-kick.
    End of story.

    1. Actually, when I saw Maui in the movie, he somehow reminded me of the Hawaiian singer Israel Kamakawiwoʻole, who was a great man (both literally and figuratively), so I instantly loved the character 🙂

  17. alexcannotcook 26/12/2016 at 2:21 pm

    Ah, it’s called Vaiana in Denmark too.
    I honestly think all of the bs about Maui being “big” is a racist thing, is so stupid..
    First, people want to see different body types, instead of sticks, and as soon as they get them they cry ‘racism!’
    It’s a fact, that it once was a good thing, to have fat on your body, as a higher class (Chiefs and Gods, as an example)
    Like it was a fact that it once was good to be chubby, when white, since that indicated that you had money.

    I think people should grow up.. It’s a movie and they’re portraying Maui as a big man, and that’s okay.
    Moana/Vaiana is a great movie, and definitely one of my favorites by far.
    I’ve been listening to the soundtrack non-stop, ever since the music came out.
    It has a great, strong female lead, and a funny male side-kick.
    End of story.

  18. Its called Vaiana in Iceland. AND i watched the original english version and for some reason shes still called Vaiana in it. She even says “I AM VAIANA”… Not “Moana”??? Why is that???

  19. […] the fact that Newt Scamander is the world’s worst wizard. Moana is called Vaiana here, for reasons. I thought it was fine; Fiona loved it and thinks it’s her favourite Disney movie now. Star […]

  20. Re: “As the French tend to dub, rather than use subtitles, over the original language, it is paramount that Disney should hold the same level of care across all its language versions”

    Animated films in general tend to be dubbed over when broadcast outside their original language. That’s not only a French thing. I imagine it’s because of the large number of children who watch them, and whose reading skills may not be that strong.

  21. […] Für die englischssprachige Ausgabe wurden Sprecher mit polynesischer Abstammung gecastet, als „Vaiana“ bzw. „Moana“ war es die erst 14jährige und bisher unbekannte Hawaiianerin Auli’i Cravalho (hier das rührende Castingvideo schauen). Solche Feinheiten gehen bei der deutschen Version natürlich leider etwas verloren, trotzdem ist der Film witzig übersetzt (und ich bin da sehr heikel). Ebenfalls wurde der Film umbenannt, aus „Moana“ (Hawaiianisch/ Maori für Meer) wurde „Vaiana“ (in Anlehnung an vai, Wasser auf Tahitianisch) – anscheinend, weil in Teilen von Europa die Marke „Moana“ geschützt sei. […]

  22. i know plenty of Islander men who look like Maui. They aren’t fat, they are broad and strong and round but that isn’t fat.

  23. Micah Van der Ryn 19/01/2017 at 11:01 am

    So does this mean that all the music is also going to be translated and re- produced? Or are the songs in English and multiple Polynesian languages, e.g. Samoa and Tokelau, produced by Te Vaka going to be the same in the French version???

  24. This is some BS of people who want 15 minutes of fame by being offended.
    We are taught that we are all equal, yet we need “representation” of french polynesian people to do the voices. We are taught to accept who we are, yet different bodytypes we are presented with are “wrong” and “ugly”.

    We have a heroine that has a figure and strength. Yet no one is happy. And instead of making the god look like The Rock (something that actually might not send a great message to kids) we have a god that is chubby, strong and kind.
    I don’t understand what is wrong with people. I get that you can never make everyone happy, but make someone thin and there will be complaints, make them bigger and there will be complaints.
    And the crap about who does the voice.. Jeez. There were no scandinavians in Frozen. There were no freaking fishes doing voices for Nemo. And remember when Eddie Murphy, a black man, did the voice of a chinese dragon. No one complained then. So take the stick out of your ass. Just sit back and enjoy the film.

  25. […] weekend which required us to be creative about how to spend our time. We saw Moana (called “Vaiana” here), visited the Mohamed IV Museum of Modern and Contemporary Art, got coffee with new […]

  26. The same in Slovakia and Czech Republic, Vaiana. IDK why. Probably Disney have some regional rules, but I would appreciate original name.

  27. It’s called Vaiana in Romania too…

    1. In Serbia and Croatia, also. But I don’t mind, tho. Moana or Vaiana, the great movie nevertheless.

  28. […] Moana, and they couldn’t have the audience being confused, obviously! OK, there are other stories of why it was changed, but this is the one I find most entertaining, aka, it must be the […]

  29. This is a really thoughtful and well written article. Firstly, in regard to Maui being a huge overweight islander , this is in keeping with pacific island culture where men, and particular the elders/chiefs, are fed first, gifted food etc. Being overweight is almost a status symbol.
    But to me the main issue here is the total disregard for the fact that there are many pacific islander francophone actors who would have given a certain charm and authenticity to the dubbed French version of the film.

  30. […] * when writing this post I found out that the movie is actually called Moana in English speaking count… […]

  31. […] Für die englischssprachige Ausgabe wurden Sprecher mit polynesischer Abstammung gecastet, als “Vaiana” bzw. “Moana” war es die erst 14jährige und bisher unbekannte Hawaiianerin Auli’i Cravalho (hier das rührende Castingvideo schauen). Solche Feinheiten gehen bei der deutschen Version natürlich leider etwas verloren, trotzdem ist der Film witzig übersetzt (und ich bin da sehr heikel). Ebenfalls wurde der Film umbenannt, aus “Moana” (Hawaiianisch/ Maori für Meer) wurde “Vaiana” (in Anlehnung an vai, Wasser auf Tahitianisch) – anscheinend, weil in Teilen von Europa die Marke “Moana” geschützt sei. […]

  32. […] conoscere le critiche sollevate sul film Oceania dal mondo francofono, vi invito a leggere questo interessante articolo (in inglese) di Mitiana […]

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